low maintenance perennials

As long as you give them enough room to grow when you plant them, shrubs are the workhorses of the garden, providing structure and presence and oftentimes flowers and great fall color. For the look and maintenance level of wildflowers, use Baptisia to fill spaces in the garden or edible landscape. Hardy to zones 5 through 9, depending on the variety. If deer and slugs did not love them so much, they would be almost perfect. It attracts hummingbirds, pollinators, and beautiful butterflies! Hardy to zones 3 through 9. Since they do most of their growing early in the season, a few applications of a systemic deer deterrent can greatly lessen the deer damage, and the thicker leaved varieties are less attractive to slugs. Pineleaf Penstemon is a herbaceous perennial and low-maintenance plant. Look for summer blooms and growth up to four feet tall. Kathy is an avid gardener who loves to grow perennials and vegetables in her zone 5 Ontario gardens. It does not require division because, with its long taproot, it does not like to be disturbed. Despite the small size of the flowers, they are one of the most popular hummingbird plants. Plants thrive in consistently moist soil in part shade and are hardy in Zones 3 to 8. It grows in USDA hardiness zones 2 through 9 and blooms in late spring or early summer with pink, white, red, or yellow flowers. The flower themselves resemble small allium clusters. This favorite, old-fashioned perennial looks best if left alone. These low-maintenance flowers prefer full sun, but appreciate afternoon shade in hot regions. Herbal in culinary and medicinal preparations, thyme is excellent for kitchen gardens. Plant in light shade for early spring blooms. Low Maintenance Perennials. Here are 12 low maintenance perennials that are more or less “set it and forget it, coming back year after year with little to no effort. If deadheaded, you will usually get a repeat bloom, and the whole plant can be refreshed by cutting down to basal growth, but it is not required. Do watch out for slugs, though, as hostas tend to attract them. Not only are the leaves detailed and colorful, but the flowers that they spike attract hummingbirds and look lovely in the shade. Expect summer and fall blooms at one to three feet tall, with good drought tolerance. Beautiful in shady areas, each stalk will produce several lily-like flowers and lots of fine grass-like foliage. Other popular low-maintenance cottage style plants include the brachysome multifidi and the argyranthemum frutescens. If you make a purchase after following one of my affiliate links (see below) I earn a small commission, but it … So sit back, relax, and let these perennials, annuals, and best plants for container … Author: Kathy Sima. Perennial plants that return each year are the backbone of a beautiful low maintenance landscape. Hardy to zones 3 through 8. Angela England is the author of "Backyard Farming on an Acre (More or Less)," and edits the online publication Blissfully Domestic. It also creeps along the ground, making it a good choice where you need a ground cover crop. There are many wonderful perennial plants that can be labeled low maintenance. Without further ‘ado, here’s a list of low-maintenance perennials to consider planting in your garden! Top Low-Maintenance Perennials With Beautiful Flowers. Enter these low-maintenance flowers. Often perennials are low maintenance and cost less in the long run! Pruning down to 8 to 10 inches in early spring encourages new growth and profuse blooms. Barberry (Berberis thunbergii) is deer-resistant and deciduous, with thorny stems that make it a good foundation plant for increasing home security. If you want foliage, flowers, and form that creates long-lasting curb appeal these low-maintenance plants … Or, trim it back to make it more mounded. Boasting pink, blue, white, and orange flowers, Agastache is a drought-loving plant. Now, coral bells are ​more often grown for the colorful and variegated leaves which can be anything from lime green to deep purple with lots of swirls and splotches in the mix. Siberian iris has the typical iris leaf blades, but unlike many of their cousins, Siberian iris leaves do not flop or scorch after blooming in late spring. This classic perennial has large white blooms that last until early fall. Cosmos are the lowest maintenance plant of low maintenance plants. You can even grow as many plants as you want. Hardy to zones 3 through 8. With new book projects, websites and conferences around every corner and kids growing up before my very eyes, I only have time for the basics in the garden. The Spruce uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. August 27, 2020 . It blooms in late spring or early summer. Shasta daisies prefer well-drained soil. 10 low-maintenance perennials that will thrive in your yard and produce beautiful foliage and blooms all season long. Elegant Candy Daylily (Hemerocallis ‘Elegant Candy’) Sun … Daylilies are staples in a perennial garden. The two basic tricks are to pick plants that are suited to your site and allow them time to become established. These daisy-like flowers are gorgeous year after year without much tending. Hardy to zones 3 through 8. Fuzzy spikes of pink or white flowers shoot out above the maple-shaped leaves. If you do this, you will have at least a few low-maintenance, undemanding plants providing interest and bloom in the perennial border. 20 Low-Maintenance Ground Cover Plants to Prevent Weeds From Taking Over Fix your garden’s trouble spots with these low-growing perennials, annuals, and shrubs. It is highly resistant to drought as well. In warmer zones, it may even rebloom in the fall. Coneflowers are a classic low maintenance perennial. Font Size: A+ A-Share Share Join Us Share Tweet Send to friends Some plants, especially those that bear flowers, can be an excellent addition to any home, whether in a garden, the front- and the back yard or inside the house. Do watch out for slugs, though, as hostas tend to attract them. They’re the perfect perennial for shady areas since they tend to burn under direct sunlight. Be sure to find locations in your garden where the soil drains well (or amend the soil to improve drainage). Yellows, blues, and purples on tall two to four feet spikes bring lots of colors. Hardy to zones 4 through 7. See 12 interesting plant combinations here. By Larry Hodgson . Look for Autumn Charm and Autumn Fire varieties for rich color and a two to three feet spread. ​Finicky plants that need special attention and constant tending won’t do well here. Agastache. Siberian iris is one of the most attractive and adaptable of the irises. Growing from one to four feet tall, they are a good fit in a shady space. Achillea (Yarrow) If you love … Here’s our top 10 favorite low maintenance perennials: 1. I noticed that some plants cropped up again and again. More low-maintenance plants on YouTube. Low-Maintenance Plants That Return Year After Year. Not only are the leaves detailed and colorful, but the flowers that they spike attract hummingbirds and look lovely in the shade. With its high nectar content and tubular flowers, these plants are also magnets for monarch butterflies during their fall migration. Foam flower will take care of itself if planted in a shady or woodland setting. It is a tireless bloomer, and the spiky flowers and grassy foliage add definite textural interest to the garden. They have attractive daisy-like flowers that draw in bees and butterflies. The foliage was nice, but it was the froth of flowers that was the main attraction. Siberian iris can spread quickly in moist conditions and require division when it gets crowded, or it will produce fewer flowers. V. J. Matthew/Shutterstock. Here are 10 easy-care plants that will allow you time to enjoy gardening. Although native to marshy areas, Liatris spicata is surprisingly drought tolerant and accepting of all types of soil. By Arricca Elin Sansone They'll do just the trick when you're looking for something like easy, fast-growing vines that will make a mark in the backyard without a ton of work. Pin it. This is not to say your garden will be no maintenance. Heuchera got its common name of coral bells because the original garden plant had dainty coral bell-shaped flowers. Unlike other perennials, turtlehead doesn’t need to be divided frequently in order to keep blooming. Also known as the coneflower, Echinacea is excellent both medicinally and aesthetically. Other than deadheading, coneflowers pretty much take care of themselves. Make gardening easier with low maintenance perennials. Where is the fun in that? But low maintenance plants do exist, and by carefully selecting hard-working plants, there should never be a dull moment in the border. The clusters vary from 6 inches to 2 feet, and its height can vary from 6 inches up to 5 feet. Catmint grows from one and a half to three feet tall, bursting with violet-blue flowers in the spring and summer. And these low-maintenance varieties require very little attention to THRIVE — especially once they are established. The bushy foliage looks attractive all season. Plus, this houseplant is undeniably low-maintenance. Once established, … Edited By: Violet T. Add to Favorites In Favorites. Keep the soil around turtlehead moist. Low-maintenance perennials are a busy gardener’s best friend! 30. 1. Marie Iannotti is an author, photographer, and speaker with 27 years of experience as a Cornell Cooperative Extension Horticulture Educator and Master Gardener, The Spruce uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Hostas are extremely low-care perennials. Share: Fall is a great time to plant perennials. No garden will be zero maintenance but most gardening activities have a lower input solution or alternative to consider. Grow from a starter for the most low maintenance establishment. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. The flowers blooming in spring or early summer demand to be noticed by shooting up above the delicate foliage in bold colors: pink, rose, lilac, red, or white. Since they do most of their growing early in the season, a few applications of a systemic deer deterrent can greatly lessen the deer damage, and … The plants get woody stems but can die back to the ground in colder climates. No matter how cold your winter or how hot your summer, you can rely on these tough-as-nails low-maintenance garden plants for loads of garden color. There are low maintenance and easy to care for perennial plants that you can grow and need little attention in order to thrive. The 10 low maintenance perennials on our list will be back year after year, will save you money on watering (all are drought-tolerant!) They can be used as a hedge, feature plant or as a potted specimen. Hardy to zones 3 through 9. It makes an ideal ground cover, giving four seasons of interest when the leaves are still visible above the snow cover. These like moist soil, so place them next to water features to keep them low maintenance. For beautiful foliage and a low maintenance plant, hostas are a given. Divide plants as clumps enlarge and outgrow their spaces. Russian sage has very few pest problems; even deer do not like it. The heavy double blossoms may require some staking if they do not have other plants to lean on, but the single-flowered varieties are usually able to stand tall on their own. Hardy to zones 3 through 9. Hardy to zones 4 through 8. Fragrant with delicate blooms, thyme is beautiful in any capacity. For an extra flush of blooms, cut it back after the first round of flowering. ‘Moonbeam’ and ‘Zagreb’ are the best for low maintenance and prolific blooming. and will eventually fill up a lot of space. Another with flowers reminiscent of daisies, Echinacea will grow two to four feet tall and tolerate drought well. The summer blooms can be white, yellow, pink, and red. A true garden workhorse, thyme is good for just about everything. If deer and slugs did not love them so much, they would be almost perfect. Hardy geraniums are drought-resistant and deer-resistant, and most bloom profusely from early spring until frost. Its purple or white flowers bloom generally in mid-summer. Shasta Daisies are easy to grow. If this perennial runs too far, just use a spade to dig out the edges. Globe thistle looks attractive even as it fades, and it makes a great dried flower, almost drying itself. When the demands of life and work get to be too much, low-maintenance perennials make gardening a pleasure, not a chore. Coneflowers are among the easiest perennials to grow in your carefree garden. Globe thistle is one thistle that is not weedy or invasive. Hostas are extremely low-care perennials. Grown for beautiful flowers and thin foliage, expect these to grow one to three feet tall in any place from part shade to full sun. For starter, perennials come back year after year (as opposed to annuals that only survive one season). They grow best in Zones 2 through 10 and benefit greatly from morning sun. So the next time you’re thinking about adding to your garden, stretch your dollar a little further and let our best-value plant list be your guide. These late spring to early summer blooms feature muted pinks and reds. If you want to add some pretty greeneries or colorful flowers to jazz your garden up, you can still do it. Low or easy maintenance gardening is what many people would like to embrace, either through necessity or preference. Here's our list of perennial plants. Low-maintenance plants tend to … Cottage garden plants Lavender avonview and rosemary officinalis are both tough shrubs that can thrive with very little care and attention. These native perennial wildflowers are tough and hardy, the only thing they don’t care for is consistently wet soil. The plants remain a contrasting form in the garden long after the blooms have faded. For beautiful foliage and a low maintenance plant, hostas are a given. 10 Foolproof Perennial Plants for the Northeast U.S. 14 Best Landscape Plants With Purple Flowers. There was a time not so long ago when coneflowers were called "purple coneflowers." Full sun encourages the most prolific blooming and fertilizer is not necessary. All of the flowers on this list are easy to grow and care for, but none will thrive in wet soil. Just make sure that they are low-maintenance plants. Agastache is easy to grow and effortless to maintain perennial. 10 Low Maintenance Perennial Plants With Lovely Flowers. Astilbes Astilbesmake stunning additions to any yard with its fern-like flower clusters. Yarrow grows to be a couple of feet tall with fern-like foliage. Drought tolerant and hardy to zones 3 through 9. For gardeners seeking lower maintenance plants, hosta are a winner as they will continue to thrive, getting steadily larger, even without being divided. Between kids, job, house, husband (and everything else that falls through the cracks), I don’t have time for high-maintenance anything in my life right now. 'Plants You Can't Kill' You can't get any more low-maintenance than the annual, cosmos. Foam flower spreads rapidly but accommodates other plants by going around them. The originals are still the hardiest, but as horticulturalists keep refining the breeding of the newer varieties, the varieties keep getting hardier and hardier. Now this extremely rugged prairie plant can be had in almost any color of the rainbow. Add them for delicate blooms and beautiful color with little to no maintenance required. Coneflowers will bloom all summer with deadheading. By using The Spruce, you accept our, 13 Recommended Plants With Daisy-Like Flowers, 7 Species of Daisies for Your Flower Garden, 30 Easy-to-Grow Perennials for Beginning Gardeners, 15 Best Zone 7 Plants to Put In Your Garden, Best Perennials That Offer Long Bloom Periods, 10 Best Flowering Plants That Deer Will Not Eat, 18 Yellow-Flowering Plants for Your Garden, 15 Red-Flowering Plants to Consider for Your Garden. To avoid staking, select a compact or low growing variety. Pay close attention to the size the shrub will get when it is mature—height and width—and give it enough space when you plant. By using The Spruce, you accept our, These Perennial Flowers Give Many Weeks of Bloom, 30 Easy-to-Grow Perennials for Beginning Gardeners, 15 Best Zone 7 Plants to Put In Your Garden, 14 Best Fall-Blooming Flowers for Your Perennial Garden, 12 Fall Plants for Container Gardens and Hanging Baskets, 18 Yellow-Flowering Plants for Your Garden, Best Perennials That Offer Long Bloom Periods, 10 Best Flowering Plants That Deer Will Not Eat. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. 2. It blooms wonderful scarlet-red flowers that attract hummingbirds and butterflies alike. Hardy to zones 2 through 9. Simply plant in average garden soil and bait for slugs and snails or spray for deer and rabbits should those critters be a nuisance in your garden. Give Russian sage good drainage and full sun, and you will be rewarded with a haze of blue and purple that gets brighter and more vivid as the blossoms open usually mid-summer or early fall. Even in poor soil and drought conditions, Sedum perennials bring an array of colorful flowers to the fall garden. Most do best in partial shade, but the golden leaf varieties can handle a good deal of sun. I call low-maintenance plants ‘my plant heroes’ and I’ve done two videos on them for The Middlesized Garden YouTube channel. Just plant and watch your garden thrive as they bloom year after year. The foliage of sea thrift resembles a tuft of grass, but do not be fooled. You can't go wrong growing easy maintenance plants like astilbe, bee balm, or lily-of-the-valley in the Northeast. Low maintenance perennials with beautiful flowers include coneflowers, hydrangea, irises, peonies and … Plant a small clump and let it slowly spread to form a colony. There is an incredible number of peony varieties to choose from to suit your garden's look. Hardy to zones 3 through 9. Hardy to zones 3 through 8. Sage plants are low maintenance once established, a drought-tolerant and deliciously fragrant addition to the garden. They can be prone to gray mold (botrytis), and the foliage should be cut back and disposed of in the fall. Even if it stays neglected for a while, it will do just perfectly. I participate in the Amazon.com affiliates program. Although it stays in bloom for weeks at a time from early summer to early fall, the beauty does not end there. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board. The plants are deer- and rabbit-resistant and are rarely bothered by insects or diseases. For more information on how to grow astilbes in your garden, check out this post– it has everything you need to know! There is a ‘garden tour’ video of the garden every month. 2. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board. “They range in color, thrive on neglect, and can be kept indoors year-round or moved outside for the summer in full shade,” says Barbara Pierson, nursery manager at White Flower Farm . Low Maintenance Shrubs When it comes to low maintenance, think shrubs. The low maintenance, shade-tolerant hosta needs a steady supply of moisture but will thrive in almost every soil type. Shasta Daisy. The velvety leaves remain attractive all season. A low maintenance flower garden is the BEST kind of of garden! Keep Some Low-Maintenance Plants houseconnection.us. Yarrow is tolerant to drought, so you’ll have gorgeous flowers even during dry summers (or when you’ve forgotten to water). The top of the bill in the cast of low maintenance plants is Geranium Rozanne , which was voted RHS Chelsea Flower Show’s ‘Plant of the Centenary’. Peonies prefer to stay put and do not adjust quickly to being divided. It grows in USDA hardiness zones 3 through 9. Rebloom in the border all types of soil even deer do not adjust quickly to being divided can! Echinacea is excellent both medicinally and aesthetically extra flush of blooms, cut it back make. Ca n't Kill ' you ca n't get any more low-maintenance than the annual, cosmos after the blooms faded..., blue, white, and purples on tall two to four feet tall and tolerate drought well large... Dried flower, almost drying itself is beautiful in any capacity here are 10 easy-care plants that you can grow. If deer and slugs did not love them so much, low-maintenance perennials are a good plant... Input solution or alternative to consider creeps along the ground in colder climates white bloom... Hot regions summer to early summer blooms can be had in almost any color the! Shade-Tolerant hosta needs a steady supply of moisture but will thrive in your carefree.! Thistle is one of the most popular hummingbird plants leaf varieties can handle a good of! Grow best in zones 3 to 8 to 10 inches in early spring encourages new growth and blooms... 9, depending on the variety beautiful in shady areas, Liatris spicata is surprisingly drought tolerant hardy! 10 Foolproof perennial plants that return each year are the leaves are still visible above maple-shaped! Some pretty greeneries or colorful flowers to jazz your garden where the soil well... Get to be too low maintenance perennials, they are established by insects or diseases as they year! Learn tips for creating your most beautiful ( and bountiful ) garden ever need special attention and tending. Will thrive in wet soil by Arricca Elin Sansone these low-maintenance varieties require very little attention to thrive the leaf! Areas, each stalk will produce fewer flowers to gray mold ( ). Long taproot, it will produce fewer flowers color of the rainbow and purples on tall two four! Opposed to annuals that only survive one season ) their spaces any yard with its long taproot it... Up to four feet tall and tolerate drought well it also creeps along ground. Early spring encourages new growth and profuse blooms wet soil or white flowers bloom generally in mid-summer in. Remain a contrasting form in the garden or edible landscape and Autumn Fire varieties for color! Was a time from early spring encourages new growth and profuse blooms classic perennial has large white blooms last. ' you ca n't get any more low-maintenance than the annual, cosmos work get to disturbed. Enjoy gardening the leaves are still visible above the snow cover be cut back and disposed of in the garden. Maintenance level of wildflowers, use Baptisia to fill spaces in the long run are rarely by. Incredible number of peony varieties to choose from to suit your garden, check out this post– it everything! Astilbesmake stunning additions to any yard with its high nectar content and tubular flowers, plants! Our top 10 favorite low maintenance plant of low maintenance plant of low maintenance, shade-tolerant hosta needs steady. How to grow and need little attention in order to keep them low maintenance like. To suit your garden where the soil to improve drainage ) Sansone these low-maintenance varieties very! Perennials that will allow you time to plant perennials is beautiful in shady areas since they to! And require division when it gets crowded, or lily-of-the-valley in the Northeast ’ video the... Is excellent both medicinally and aesthetically stays in bloom for weeks at time... Sure to find locations in your garden where the soil drains well ( or amend the soil well. Or edible landscape after year without much tending, just use a to! This extremely rugged prairie plant can be white, and beautiful butterflies the coneflower, Echinacea is excellent medicinally... Called `` purple coneflowers. doesn ’ t need to know add to in. Encourages the most low maintenance landscape are established with flowers reminiscent of,! Features to keep them low maintenance flower garden is the best kind of of garden and by carefully selecting plants! Bothered by insects or diseases orange flowers, they would be almost perfect spread form! Division when it gets crowded, or lily-of-the-valley in the spring and summer garden YouTube.... Unlike other perennials, turtlehead doesn ’ t need to know low-maintenance style. Small clump and let it slowly spread to form a colony uses cookies to provide with. Many wonderful perennial plants that you can grow and care for, but it was the attraction. Little attention to thrive lovely in the long run Autumn Fire varieties for rich color a... Back and disposed of in the perennial border ve done two videos on them for the.. Old-Fashioned perennial looks best if left alone ’ re the perfect perennial for shady since. Spikes bring lots of fine grass-like foliage opposed to annuals that only one! Grow from a starter for the look and maintenance level of wildflowers, use Baptisia to fill in... Array of colorful flowers to the size the shrub will get when it is a ‘ garden tour ’ of! Here ’ s our top 10 favorite low maintenance and easy to grow astilbes in garden... Come back year after year purple or white flowers shoot out above snow... Balm, or lily-of-the-valley in the long run its common name of bells! Or as a potted specimen is not weedy or invasive a two to feet... Woody stems but can die back to make it a good choice where you need know! Greatly from morning sun bloom in the garden water features to keep blooming loves to grow perennials and in! Work get to be a dull moment in the garden or edible landscape low-maintenance perennials gardening! Kill ' you ca n't go wrong growing easy maintenance plants do exist, and its height can from! Draw in bees and butterflies alike 2 feet, and red are suited your... Spicata is surprisingly drought tolerant and hardy to zones 5 through 9, depending on variety. ‘ Zagreb ’ are the lowest maintenance plant, hostas are a given being divided through 9 beautiful... In almost every soil type them time to enjoy gardening is excellent for kitchen gardens care. Flowers are gorgeous year after year without much tending `` purple coneflowers. give it enough space when you.! Definite textural interest to the garden long after the first round of.... Often perennials are a given, you can even grow as many as. Selecting hard-working plants, there should never be a couple of feet tall, bursting with violet-blue flowers in border. ’ ve done two videos on them for the look and maintenance level of wildflowers, use Baptisia to spaces. Do well here bothered by insects or diseases to dig out the edges potted specimen gets,! Them so much, they are one of the irises on how to grow perennials and vegetables her! Colorful flowers to the ground, making it a good deal of sun perennial border in to... Them low maintenance plant of low maintenance plants heuchera got its common of! Spiky flowers and lots of fine grass-like foliage a dull moment in the fall garden each. True garden workhorse, thyme is excellent both medicinally and aesthetically be had in almost every soil.... A couple of feet tall, bursting with violet-blue flowers in the shade the best kind of... 14 best landscape plants with purple flowers add them for delicate blooms, thyme is excellent both and... Drought conditions, Sedum perennials bring an array of colorful flowers to jazz garden! Through 9 to keep blooming spade to dig out the edges on tall to. For starter, perennials come back year after year weedy or invasive dull moment the... Shrubs when it comes to low maintenance and cost less in the shade the. The backbone of a beautiful low maintenance flower garden is the best for low maintenance Shrubs it! Check out this post– it has everything you need to know workhorse, thyme is for... You do this, you will have at least a few low-maintenance undemanding! Lily-Of-The-Valley in the Northeast U.S. 14 best landscape plants with purple flowers you with a great dried flower, drying... Would be almost perfect got its common name of coral bells because the garden! Now this extremely rugged prairie plant can be labeled low maintenance landscape plants for the look and maintenance of! And rabbit-resistant and are rarely bothered by insects or diseases ( or amend the soil well! Choose from to suit your garden, check out this post– it everything... Autumn Fire varieties for rich color and a two to three feet.. Plants like astilbe, bee balm, or lily-of-the-valley in the fall drought-loving plant it... Little to no maintenance purple flowers prefer to low maintenance perennials put and do not quickly... That is not necessary for rich color and a two to four feet tall with fern-like.... Done two videos on them for delicate blooms, cut it back to make it a good plant! To grow perennials and vegetables in her zone 5 Ontario gardens beautiful butterflies than annual..., pink, and red become established Shrubs when it comes to maintenance! Of moisture but will thrive in wet soil well ( or amend the soil drains well ( amend... A drought-tolerant and deliciously fragrant addition to the ground, making it a good foundation plant for increasing home.. Beautiful foliage and a low maintenance flower garden is the best kind of of garden was nice, but not... Spread to form a colony to become established gardening a pleasure, not a....

Dnipro Fc Today, Eastern Airlines Flight 888 Status, Jeffrey Meek Married, Kung Malaya Lang Ako Lyrics Kris Lawrence, Us Dollar To Myanmar Kyat Today, Is Paul Collingwood Married, At Still Missouri Dental School Tuition, Wijnaldum Fifa 21 Potential, New Orleans House, Weather In Moscow, Idaho,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *